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The contamination can happen either by insect breeding, foreign algae or through chemical contaminants. Any amount of chlorine present in the water will kill the algae growth.

This will lead to a complete loss in the production of Spirulina. At the time of harvesting, the existence of larva or pupae will contaminate the Spirulina quality and yield. All extraneous materials can be removed from the culture medium by using a fine wire mesh frame.

Spirulina Cultivation and Production Natural Habitat : Earnings on removing extraneous odors is one among many algal species found growing in natural freshwaters. They are also found in natural habitats such as soil marshes, seawater, and brackish waters where alkaline waters exist. They thrive well in highly alkaline waters with a high level of solar radiation where no other microorganisms can grow.

In the natural habitats, their growth cycles depend on the limited supply of nutrients. When new nutrients from the rivers or from pollution reach the water bodies, the algae rapidly grows and increase its population to the maximum density.


When nutrients get exhausted the Spirulina dies off reaching the bottom and gets decomposed releasing nutrients into the water. A new Spirulina cycle begins when more nutrients flow into the lake.

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Commercial and Mass Cultivation : Japan in the early 's started large-scale culture cultivation of microalgae of chlorella followed by Spirulina in the early 's. Today, there are more than 22 countries that cultivate Spirulina commercially on a large-scale. Ponds : Commercial cultivation is usually carried out in shallow artificial ponds equipped with mechanical paddle wheels for stirring the culture.

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The cultivation is carried out in two ways. Concrete ponds and 2. Pits lined with PVC or other plastic sheets. Concrete ponds can last for very long mass cultivation, but it is very expensive. The cost of production in the early years will be high. Low-cost clay sealing and durable plastic sheets will not last long, but incur investment at regular periods when the materials start to wear and tear.

Spirulina Farming

Concrete ponds will be more cost-effective in the Spirulina business over the earnings on removing extraneous odors while low-investment structures will be more expensive in the business over the years. Ponds can be of any size and shape depending on the physical land dimensions. Construction of single or multiple ponds can be done with each pond size of 50 m long, m wide, and with 20 to 30 cm depth are ideal pond conditions.

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Length of the ponds can be of any length depending on the land availability. Covering of each pond with transparent polythene covers will help increase the temperature, decrease water evaporation, and helps reduce chances of contamination. Mixing Devices : There are two ways of mixing the culture evenly and they are manual mixing the culture and mixing the culture mechanically. Hand tools, such as long sticks, or broomsticks, or any convenient devices can be used.

Commonly used mechanical devices are paddle wheels, these are installed for stirring the culture.

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Stirring the culture helps all the Spirulina organisms reaching to the top that they can take earnings on removing extraneous odors dioxide and solar energy for photosynthesis.

Paddle wheels are installed according to the size of the ponds. Matrix indicators for binary options large paddle wheel of diameter about two meters should rotate at 10 rpm speed. A small paddle wheel of diameter up to 0. Spirulina Cultivation Process : Cultivation can be started after water is fed into each concrete pond at a required height and after paddle wheels are installed.

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The water has to have the right pH value and alkaline by adding required salts at the required rate. Once the water has a standard micronutrient composition, the pond is ready for Spirulina seeding. Ideally, for uniform growth and for uniform harvesting, 30 grams of dry Spirulina is added for every 10 liters of water.

A concentrated live Spirulina culture can also be used as seeding the pond. In commercial farms, one pond is exclusively kept for rearing Spirulina as seed. This will reduce the regular purchase and the farm becomes self-sustain and also can sell live Spirulina seed to other farmers. The algae bacterium starts to double in biomass within three to earnings on removing extraneous odors days.

The alga thrives growing by consuming the nutrients in the culture medium.

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Farmers have to continually check the nutrient content value and adding fresh water at regular periods for good production and for top yields. Farmers should be alert to control environmental conditions as this prevents the culture medium from contamination. Cultures grow rapidly as well as perish rapidly when Spirulina cultures are not taken care of properly. The matured Spirulina changes from light to dark green in color. The concentration of algae and color of the algae is the deciding factor for when Spirulina should be harvested.

The other way is by using Secchi desk to measure and it should be around 0. The water level in the pond should be maintained at 20 to 30 cm 25 cm is ideal water level height. As most of the ponds are open the evaporation of water will affect the cultivation.

Especially during summer, on an average thrice in a month, fresh water is released into the ponds to maintain consistent 25 cm water level height throughout the cultivation. Harvesting of Spirulina Filtering of Culture Medium : As said earnings on removing extraneous odors, the concentration of algae in the pond will be the deciding factor for harvesting.

In general, the pond will be ready for harvest after five days after seeding process is done. Different farmers use different methods to harvest Spirulina, this is because of the availability of material resources and finance.

Whatever is the reason, filtration is carried out to harvest Spirulina. Culture is collected in a container and poured onto the cloth. The culture medium flows back into the pond, leaving Spirulina on the cloth.

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The excess or the culture medium residues that still remains can be drained by applying pressure or squeezing.

Farmers have designed various filtering process for the easy and quick process. One can get more information on the internet for various designs that can be used to reduce manual and quick harvest processing work. After filtering, the collected Spirulina is thoroughly washed in distilled water to remove any traces of salts, contaminants, or culture medium residue.

Once the cleaning is done, the water content is further removed by squeezing or pressing and is ready for drying. Freshly harvested Spirulina will be at its best in its nutritional values.

Fresh Spirulina cannot last more than 2 days, hence it needs to be dried to preserve its nutritional values and to last for a longer duration. Drying of Fresh Spirulina : Spirulina, when dried, will last for many months and also the nutritional content in it can be preserved.

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For quick drying, the Spirulina mass is kept inside the kitchen press grater and then pressed into thin strands on a long clean cloth under the sun. This helps in quick drying. The kitchen press comes with various discs of different hole sizes in it. Use the disc which is comfortable and which will help in quick drying.

The Spirulina mass is squeezed into thin strands through machines which are used for noodles and are laid in the open sun to dry. Some farmers apply the Spirulina mass into a thin layer using a knife over the cloth. Some uses syringe for noodle-like strands. Whatever methods and materials used, shortening the drying period will lessen contaminators.

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Ovens that run electrically or solar powered can be used to speed drying. Grinding and Storage: The well-dried strands of Spirulina are now ready for grinding. Grinding machines for flour making can be used for grounding of the dried algae.

Spirulina is grounded and made into soft powder dust which is then packed with different weights and sealed for marketing. Vacuum dried and airtight packing will preserve the nutritional qualities up to three to four years.

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Each pond constructed is of 10 x 20 feet size. And there are about 20 such ponds. Each pond will generate on an average about 2 kg wet culture per day.

The farmer has to understand this equation that a one-kg wet culture will give earnings on removing extraneous odors of dry powder only. Based on this, on an average, a 20 tank Spirulinafarming business will generate kg of dry Spirulina powder on a daily basis.

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The production of Spirulina in a month will be around to kg per month. Dry Spirulina powder in the market will fetch about Rs. A farmer can reduce his fixed investment by going for earth pits covered with durable plastic sheets which can cost him around Rs.

A farmer can make more profits by increasing tanks made with low-cost, durable materials apart from concrete ponds by utilizing maximum space available in the land, which will reduce labor and investment with more profit returns.