These codecs normally treat the presence of surrogates as an error. New in version 3. Changed in version 3. The set of allowed values can be extended by registering a new named error handler: codecs.
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The error handler must either raise this or a different exception, or return a tuple with a replacement for the unencodable part of the input and a position where encoding should continue. The replacement may be either str or bytes. If the replacement is bytes, the encoder will simply copy them into the output buffer.
If the replacement is a string, the encoder will encode the replacement.
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Encoding continues on original input at the specified position. Negative position values will be treated as being relative to the end of the input string.
If the resulting position is out of bound an IndexError will be raised. Decoding and translating works similarly, except UnicodeDecodeError or UnicodeTranslateError will be passed to the handler and that the replacement from the error handler will be put into the output directly. Previously registered error handlers including the standard error handlers can be looked up by name: codecs.
Raises a LookupError in case the handler cannot be found. The following standard error handlers are also made available decoding option name module level functions: codecs.
For instance, text encoding converts a string object to a bytes object using a particular character set encoding e. The errors argument defines the error handling to apply. It defaults to 'strict' handling. The method may not decoding option name state in the Codec instance. Use StreamWriter for codecs which have to keep state in order to make encoding efficient.
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The encoder must be able to handle zero length input and return an empty object of the output object type in this situation. For instance, for a text encodingdecoding converts a bytes object encoded using a particular character set encoding to a string object. For text encodings and decoding option name codecs, input must be a bytes object or one which provides the read-only buffer interface — for example, buffer objects and memory mapped files. Decoding option name StreamReader for codecs which have to keep state in order to make decoding efficient.
The decoder must be able to handle zero length input and return an empty object of the output object type in this situation.
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It defines the following methods which every incremental encoder must define in order to be compatible with binary options are the most profitable Python codec registry.
All incremental encoders must provide this constructor interface. They are free to add additional keyword arguments, but only the ones defined here are used by the Python codec registry. The IncrementalEncoder may implement different error handling schemes by providing the errors keyword argument.
See Error Handlers for possible values. The errors argument will be assigned to an attribute of the same name. Assigning to this attribute makes it possible to switch between different error decoding option name strategies during the decoding option name of the IncrementalEncoder object.
If this is the last call to encode final must be true the default is false. The output is discarded: call. The implementation should make sure that 0 is the most common state. It defines the following methods which every incremental decoder must define in order to be compatible with the Python codec registry.
All incremental decoders must provide this constructor interface. The IncrementalDecoder may implement different error handling schemes by providing the errors keyword argument. Assigning to this attribute makes it possible to switch between different error handling strategies during the lifetime of the IncrementalDecoder object. If this is the last call to decode final must be true the default is false. If final is true the decoder must decode the input completely and must flush all buffers.
The option premium is the price must be a decoding option name with two items, the first must be the buffer containing the still undecoded input. The second must be an integer and can be additional state info. The implementation should make sure decoding option name 0 is the most common additional state info.
If this additional state info is 0 it must be possible to set the decoder to the state which has no input buffered and 0 as the additional state info, so that feeding the previously buffered input to the decoder returns it to the previous state without producing any output. See encodings.
All stream writers must provide this constructor interface. The stream argument must be a file-like object open for writing text or binary data, as appropriate for the specific buyer s option term. The StreamWriter may implement different error handling schemes by providing the errors keyword argument. See Error Handlers for the standard error handlers the underlying decoding option name codec may support. Assigning to this attribute makes it possible to switch between different error handling strategies during the lifetime of the StreamWriter object.
The standard bytes-to-bytes codecs do not support this method. Calling this method should ensure that the data on the output is put into a clean state that allows appending of new fresh data without having to rescan the whole stream to recover state.
In addition to the above methods, the StreamWriter must also inherit decoding option name other methods and attributes from the underlying stream. All stream readers must provide this constructor interface. The stream argument must be a file-like object open for reading text or binary data, as appropriate for the specific codec.
The StreamReader decoding option name implement different error handling schemes by providing the errors keyword argument.
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Assigning to this attribute makes it possible to switch between different error handling strategies during the lifetime of the StreamReader object. The chars argument indicates the number of decoded code points or bytes to return. The read method will never return more data than requested, but it might return less, if there is not enough available.
The size argument indicates the approximate maximum number of encoded bytes or code points to read for decoding. The decoder can modify this setting as appropriate.
The default value -1 indicates to read and decode as much as possible. This parameter is intended to prevent having to decode huge files in one step.
The firstline flag indicates that it would be sufficient to only return the first line, if there are decoding errors on later lines.
The method should use a greedy read strategy meaning that it should read as much data as is allowed within the definition of the encoding and the given size, e. If keepends is false line-endings will be stripped from the lines returned. Note that no stream repositioning should take place. This method is primarily intended to be able to recover from decoding errors.
In addition to the above methods, the StreamReader must also inherit all other methods and attributes from the underlying stream. The design is such that one can use the factory functions returned by the lookup function to construct the instance. Reader and Writer must be factory functions or classes providing the StreamReader and StreamWriter interface resp.
Error handling is done in the same way as defined for the stream readers decoding option name writers.