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Surely it is time to problematize and critically question what knowledge is. How does it differ from data, information, evidence, or experience? Is it explicit or tacit, individual or collective, generic or specific, context free or context bound, value neutral or value laden? To what extent do these dualities, well rehearsed in the literature, adequately capture what we know and do not know about knowledge and its exchange?
Let me summarize what I think choosing a dealing center Contandriopoulos and colleagues are saying before returning to consider how well they have answered or sidestepped these ontological questions.
Contandriopoulos and colleagues consider knowledge in two essential forms figure 1 in their article : 1 individual, that is, held in people's heads and translated or not into action by human will and agency, and 2 collective, that is, socially shared and organizationally embedded, whose effect on individual behavior and specific outcomes is more diffuse Contandriopoulos et al. They make a persuasive case for moving knowledge exchange research from an individual level for which the evidence base is extensive, largely experimental, relatively uncontested, and well summarized in Cochrane-style reviews to an organizational and policy level at which none of these characteristics applies.
The road to enlightenment on these meso- and macro-dimensions of knowledge exchange is not paved exclusively with controlled experiments.
- Немые короткие фильмы они рассматривали почти три часа.
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- Понаблюдав несколько минут, Ричард и Николь продолжили путь по мосткам, к месту их пересечения, - как раз над самым центром комнаты.
- Но твое предложение, пожалуй, действительно разумно в данной Семейство решило, что Ричарду, Максу и Патрику следует отправиться на разведку за черный экран, чтобы найти место, где производят пищу для людей, а вблизи него - приемлемый кров.
- Но не нужно утверждать, что моя реакция на другую Николь является единственной и даже главной причиной такого решения.
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Putting aside the question of how valid and reliable an item of information is in the first place an important part of the picture but beyond the scope of their reviewContandriopoulos and colleagues suggest a variety of mechanisms by which such information may become collectivized, including efforts to make it relevant timely, salient, actionablelegitimate choosing a dealing center, authoritative, reasonableand accessible available, understandable, assimilable and to take account of the points of departure assumptions, world views, priorities of a particular audience.
They also present evidence that the success of such efforts depends on the extent to which the audience is polarized on the issue Is it a problem? Is it a priority? What would a solution look like?
In other choosing a dealing center, a meta-analysis might be slapped on the boardroom table or passed to the press perhaps bundled up with personal testimony, descriptive statistics, or cost-benefit estimates in a strategic attempt choosing a dealing center influence a decision to say provide or deny treatment to an individual or group.
Information is exchanged in networks, especially when the members of these networks like and trust one another and have found previous communications useful. Networks take many forms managed or informal, focused or diffuse, intranets or extranets, hierarchies or cliques.
Two contrasting but ultimately commensurable conceptualizations of knowledge run through the article by Contandriopoulos and colleagues. This kind of knowledge leaves pipeline theorists high and dry and much in need of, although few of them realize it, a lesson in political science. Next I summarize what I think are two such publications, since they productively complicate the picture painted by Contandriopoulos and colleagues. Its central argument is that each of these positions complements and extends the other.
The authors begin with a widely cited definition of knowledge from another paper by Davenport and Pruzak: Knowledge is a flux mix of framed experiences, values, contextual information and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the minds of knowers. In organizations, it often becomes embedded not only in documents or repositories but also in organizational routines, processes, practices, and norms.
Data, information, and knowledge are conceptualized as lying on a single continuum and differ in choosing a dealing center extent to which human processing and judgment is involved.
- А потом мы полюбили друг друга и придумали, как спастись с острова с помощью птиц.
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- Все это старость, - проговорил Орел.
- Она помолчала несколько секунд.
- Тут началось настоящее столпотворение.
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Let us pause for an example. Suppose that I saw a patient complaining of a cough.
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He choosing a dealing center an asylum seeker from a war zone, living in temporary damp, cramped quarters and awaiting rehousing, for which I have written to the relevant authority. The patient knows and I know that he knows that rehousing decisions are made on the basis of a points system in which serious medical conditions count for a lot and that he is currently many points short of the top of the waiting opteck binary options reviews. In this context, and taking account of intuitive cues accumulated from twenty-five years of listening to patients coughing GreenhalghI classified this symptom alongside the abdominal pain for which he was referred to a gastroenterologist no organic cause was found and his recurring headaches, which are accompanied by flashbacks.
I removed my doctor-as-diagnostician hat and turned away from the computer screen. I listened to his troubles and, for a few brief minutes, bore witness to his suffering Charon Suppose, too, that the medical student who was sitting in with me later called up a guideline on his personal digital assistant and challenged me.
Why had I not listened to the patient's chest or measured his peak expiratory flow rate? Why, he implicitly asked, had I not followed the rules? In justifying my actions, I advised my bold student to note Kathryn Montgomery Hunter's advice that the practice of medicine—especially when the signal-to-noise ratio is not clear—is not merely about knowing the rules but about deciding which rule is relevant in any given situation: Clinical education is preparation for practical, ethical action: what best to do, how to behave, how to discover enough to warrant taking action, which choice to make on behalf of the patient.
As lawyers, literary critics, historians and other students of evidence know well, there is no text that is self-interpreting. As rules, these maxims are relentlessly contextual. HunterKnowledge the capacity to exercise judgment requires two things: 1 the ability to draw distinctions e. Knowledgeable individuals exercise judgment within their domain of action because and to the extent that they have successfully completed a period of socialization sociocultural, professional, organizational, and usually a combination of all these that has enabled them to appreciate and take account of subtle aspects of context when making distinctions.
In professional, scientific, and organizational life as opposed to social life in generalsocial structures are often formally negotiated: The justification purpose underlying a rule needs to be elaborated upon and its meaning agreed by the organizational collective. Organizational tasks are thus accomplished by individuals being able to secure a shared sense of what rules mean or by agreeing upon, reinforcing, and sustaining a set of justifications in the course of their work.
Those who find themselves smiling wryly at these words should explore the sociological research on ethnomethodology, or how individuals particularize generic rules through their knowledge of context so as to make appropriate moment-by-moment judgments on what to do next Garfinkel They find three choosing a dealing center conceptualizations of the relationship between theory and practice. The first begins with knowledge and considers how it is transferred into practice.
The second, drawing on Aristotle's notions of episteme, techne, and praxis, views theory and practice as different kinds of knowledge and considers that the former which is oriented to building context-free choosing a dealing center cannot be translated into the latter which is situated, contextualized, and oriented to addressing choosing a dealing center problems.
A third and, suggest Van de Ven and Johnson, the preferred view holds that knowledge emerges dialectically when academics and practitioners or policymakers converge to address a problem.
Conflicts among the different parties are inevitable and should be treated as data and as opportunities for reflection.
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The notion that knowledge translation and exchange is an impoverished framing of the theory-practice challenge, choosing a dealing center with knowledge generation via academic-practitioner dialogue, is not new.
Nonetheless, translation and exchange have remained the dominant metaphors in the field of health care. In conclusion, the insights that Contandriopoulos and colleagues have systematically drawn from the political science literature have added significantly to the study of knowledge exchange in health care policymaking.
But there are other rich seams of evidence to be mined, relating to how, in what are generally low- and moderate-polarization situations, what the individual knows is related to what the collective profession, team, organization knows and how generic knowledge e.
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It also is time to ask how many more times knowledge translation and exchange will be systematically reviewed before someone reviews engaged scholarship. When they do, a citation track of Van de Ven and Johnson's paper is likely to produce some rich pickings. References Balint M. The Doctor, His Patient and the Illness.
London: Choosing a dealing center The Forms of Capital. In: Richardson JG, editor. Handbook for Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education.
What Is This Knowledge That We Seek to “Exchange”?
Slough: Greenwood Press; Narrative Medicine: Form, Function, and Ethics. Annals of Internal Medicine. The Milbank Quarterly. British Medical Journal. Studies in Ethnomethodology. Intuition and Evidence—Uneasy Bedfellows? British Journal of General Practice.
Theoretical Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Policy Commentary C Institutions and Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; Structuration Theory. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan; What Physicians Know. Choosing a dealing center England Journal of Medicine.
Organizational Knowledge. Journal of Management Studies.
Knowledge for Theory and Practice. Academy of Management Review. Sensemaking in Organizations.