# Bitcoin algorithms

In this post we will take more a technical look at the cryptography involved and how it is used to secure the network.

As I said bitcoin algorithms, Bitcoin is very accessible. Cryptographic Hash Functions Before moving forward we should take a moment to learn about hash functions since they are used all throughout the Bitcoin protocol. To put it simply, bitcoin algorithms hash function is just a mathematical algorithm that takes an input and turns it into an output.

This is a question often surrounded by confusion, so here's a quick explanation! The basics for a new user As a new user, you can get started with Bitcoin without understanding the technical details.

For example, suppose we have an algorithm which just adds all the digits in the input string together. Bitcoin algorithms our input is we would get an output of However, there are certain properties of really good hash functions that make them suitable to use in cryptography. Keep these properties in mind as they are vital bitcoin algorithms the operation of the Bitcoin protocol.

It should be very easy to compute an output for any given input, however it should be bitcoin algorithms given current knowledge of mathematics and the state of computers to compute the input for a given output even while knowing the mathematical algorithm. In this case there are many possible inputs that could add up to 10 55, etc.

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However, given the simplicity bitcoin algorithms our function one could still figure out the input relatively easily. Some cryptographic hash functions, on the other hand, are said to be unbreakable by even quantum computers.

Unlike our example, each potential output should map to only one input. If a two different inputs can produce the same output this is called a hash collision. Good cryptographic hash algorithms are resistant to such collisions.

A hash function should be able to take inputs of variable size and turn them into outputs of a fixed size. A tiny change in the input should produce an entirely different output that in no way relates to the original input.

Most of the fields are used in the block header.

You might wonder how we can trust something bitcoin algorithms came from the NSA. The consensus is that they are secure. Merkle Trees Now that we have the preliminaries out of the way we can start focusing in on the protocol.

If you read Part 1 you will recall that all Bitcoin transactions are relayed to each of the peers in the network. The first step in the process is bitcoin algorithms hash each transaction in the memory pool using SHA The raw transaction data may look something like this: a06ea98cd40ba2ebceccaaf5eedc8e9e5a20fbdfae2d23be71aa3ad7deb3bbec4ae1aa2cf0db1df12d2afcae4ec2beb03ddef7fd06ee7ce0badc5d2ad13eade1acfbeddcf4bff2ebc19cef25abafcfbbab70ab09effffffff01b02eaadbdefaee5bfdebad7e12f7b2b1a88ac Once hashed it will look like this: 2dfa2f8aaae4a6fd93bfadf96b9c3ebffa9ad These hashes are then organized into something called a Merkle Tree or hash tree.

The hashes of the transactions are organized into pairs of twos, concatenated together, then hashed bitcoin algorithms.

## Bitcoin and cryptocurrency algorithms and implementation tutorial. | Toptal

The same is done to each set of outputs until something like a tree is formed or an NCAA bracket. In the above example there are only bitcoin algorithms transactions tx stands for transaction. A real block will contain hundreds of transactions so the bracket tree will be much larger. The hash at the very top of the tree is called the Merkle Root.

Now having done all this can we go ahead and relay the block to the rest of btcon bitcoin algorithms to make big money network?

If you recall the last post, the answer is no. We still need to produce a valid proof of work.

The output must be less than the specified number. Another way of saying this is bitcoin algorithms the hash of the block header must start with a certain number of zeros.

For example a valid hash may look like this: ef1cff7aebc89da70ac0ee0 Any block whose header does not produce a hash bitcoin algorithms is less than the target value will be rejected by the network.

The target value is adjusted by the protocol every two weeks to try to maintain an average block time of 10 minutes.

This is where the nonce comes in. The nonce is simply a random number that is added to the block header for no other reason than to give us something to increment in an attempt to produce a valid hash.

### How Does Bitcoin Work?

If your first attempt at hashing the header produces an invalid hash, you just add one to the nonce and rehash the header then check to see bitcoin algorithms that hash is valid. This is Bitcoin mining in a nutshell. This is essentially what Bitcoin mining is, just rehashing the block header, over, and over, and over, and over, until one miner in the network eventually produces a valid hash.

When he does, he relays the block to the rest of the network. If so, they add the block to their local copy of the block chain and move on to finding the next block. However, the more hashes that you can perform per second, the greater the probability that you will mine a block and earn the block reward. CPU mining quickly gave way to GPU mining graphics processing units bitcoin algorithms proved much more efficient at calculating hash functions.

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Basically, these are purpose built computer chips that are designed to perform SHA calculations and do nothing else. At present, the total hashing power in the network is about terrahashs per second and closing in on one petahash per bitcoin algorithms.

Because each miner is sending these 25 bitcoins to his own address, the first transaction bitcoin algorithms each block will differ from miner to miner. Now remember the properties of a binary options indicator rs hash function? If an input changes even in the slightest, the entire output changes. Since the hash of the coinbase transaction at the base of the hash tree is different for each miner, the entire hash tree including the Merkle root will be different for each miner.

### Cryptocurrency for Dummies: Bitcoin and Beyond

That means the nonce that is needed to produce a valid block will also be different for each miner. This is the reason why the Merkle tree is employed after all. Any change to a single transaction will cause an avalanche up the hash tree that will ultimately cause the hash of the block to change.

Hash Chaining The hash of each block is included in the header of the bitcoin algorithms block as such: If an attacker wants to alter or remove a transaction that is already in the block chain, the bitcoin algorithms will cause the hash of the options on ticks to change and spark off changes all the way up the hash tree to the Merkle Root.

Given the probabilities, it is unlikely a header with the new Merkle Root will produce a valid hash the proof of work. Hence, the attacker will need to rehash the entire block header and spend a ton of time finding the correct nonce. But suppose he does this, can he just relay his fraudulent block to the network and hope that miners will replace the old block with his new one or, more realistically, that new users will download his fraudulent block?

The reason is because the hash of each block is included in the header of the next block. If the attacker rehashes block numberthis will cause the header of block to change, requiring that block to be rehashed as well.

A change to the hash of block will cause the header of block to change and so on all the way through the block bitcoin algorithms.

Any attempt to alter a transaction already in the block chain requires not only the rehashing of the block containing the transaction, but all other subsequent blocks as well.

Depending on how deep in the chain the transaction is, it could take a single attacker weeks, months, or years, to rehash the rest of the block chain. Six Confirmations The only exception to the above rule is if the attacker simply gets lucky.

As we noted, it takes the entire network an average bitcoin algorithms 10 minutes to find a valid block. The deeper a transaction is in the block bitcoin algorithms, however, the more times in row the attacker would need to get lucky and mine a block before the rest of the network to extend his chain longer than the main chain. From a probability standpoint, the chances of such an attack succeeding decrease exponentially with each subsequent block.

In the original white paper Satoshi Nakamoto calculated the probabilities that an attacker could get lucky and pull off a double spend. In the following table q is the bitcoin algorithms of the network controlled by the attacker, P is the probability an attacker could get lucky and bitcoin algorithms z number of blocks.

### How does Bitcoin work?

Which is usually why it is recommended that if you are selling something expensive, you should wait until your transaction is six blocks deep six confirmations in Bitcoin lingo before actually handing over the merchandise. This post got long in a hurry. Hope you enjoyed these posts and I hope you learned something. Share this:.